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Lanier performing at the Garden of Memory Solstice Concert in June, 2009
|Born||May 3, 1960 |
New York City
|Occupation||Computer scientist, composer, visual artist, author.|
|Known for||Virtual reality|
Jaron Zepel Lanier (pronounced /ˈdʒɛərɨn lɨˈnɪər/, born 3 May 1960 in New York City) is an American computer scientist, best known for popularizing the term virtual reality (VR).
A pioneer in the field of VR, Lanier and Thomas G. Zimmerman left Atari in 1985 to found VPL Research, Inc., the first company to sell VR goggles and gloves. In the late 1990s, Lanier worked on applications for Internet2, and in the 2000s, he was a visiting scholar at Silicon Graphics and various universities. More recently, he has acted as an advisor to Linden Lab on their virtual world product Second Life, and as "scholar-at-large" at Microsoft Research where he has worked on the Kinect device for Xbox 360.
Lanier is also known as a composer of classical music and a collector of rare instruments; his acoustic album, Instruments of Change(1994) features Asian wind and string instruments such as the khene mouth organ, the suling flute, and the sitar-like esraj. Lanier was the director of an experimental short film, and teamed with Mario Grigorov to compose the soundtrack to the documentary film, The Third Wave(2007). As an author, Lanier has written a column for Discover magazine; his book, You Are Not a Gadget (2010), is a critique of Web 2.0.
In 2010, Lanier was nominated in the TIME 100 list of most influential people.
Early life and education (1960–1982)
Born Jaron Zepel Lanier in New York City, Lanier was raised in Mesilla, New Mexico. Lanier's mother and father were Jewish immigrants from Europe; his mother was a survivor from a Vienna concentration camp and his father's family had emigrated from Ukraine to escape the pogroms. Lanier's mother was killed in a car accident when he was 9. He lived in tents for an extended period with his father before embarking on a seven year project to build a geodesic dome home that he helped design. He dropped out of high school, and worked as a goat herder providing goat milk and cheese from 1974 to 1978.
At the age of 14, Lanier convinced New Mexico State University to let him enroll. At NMSU, Lanier met Marvin Minsky and Clyde Tombaugh, and took graduate-level courses; he received a grant from the National Science Foundation to study mathematical notation, which led him to learn computer programming. From 1979 to 1980, the NSF-funded project at NMSU focused on "digital graphical simulations for learning". Lanier also attended art school in Manhattan during this time, but returned to New Mexico and worked as a midwife. The father of a baby he helped deliver gave him a car as a gift; Lanier drove the car to Los Angeles to visit a girl whose father happened to work in the physics department at the California Institute of Technology, where Lanier met and conversed with Richard Feynman and Murray Gell-Mann.
Atari Labs, VPL Research (1983–1990)
In California, Lanier worked for Atari, where he met Thomas Zimmerman, inventor of the data glove. After Atari Inc. was split into two companies in 1984, Lanier became unemployed. The free time enabled him to concentrate on his own projects, including VPL, a “post-symbolic” visual programming language. Along with Zimmerman, Lanier founded VPL Research, focusing on commercializing virtual reality technologies; the company prospered for a while, but filed for bankruptcy in 1990. In 1999, Sun Microsystems bought VPL's virtual reality and graphics-related patents.
Internet2, visiting scholar (1997–2001)
From 1997 to 2001, Lanier was the Chief Scientist of Advanced Network and Services, which contained the Engineering Office of Internet2, and served as the Lead Scientist of theNational Tele-immersion Initiative, a coalition of research universities studying advanced applications for Internet2. The Initiative demonstrated the first prototypes of tele-immersion in 2000 after a three-year development period. From 2001 to 2004, he was Visiting Scientist at Silicon Graphics Inc., where he developed solutions to core problems in telepresence and tele-immersion. He was also visiting scholar with the Department of Computer Science at Columbia University (1997–2001), a visiting artist with New York University's Interactive Telecommunications Program, and a founding member of the International Institute for Evolution and the Brain.
Philosophy, criticism of Web 2.0
"One-Half of a Manifesto" (2000)
In what is probably his most famous paper, "One-Half of a Manifesto" (Wired, 2000), Lanier opposes the prospect of so called "cybernetic totalism", which is "a cataclysm brought on when computers become ultra-intelligent masters of matter and life." Lanier's position is that humans may not be considered to be biological computers, i.e., they may not be compared to digital computers in any proper sense, and it is very unlikely that humans could be generally replaced by computers easily in few decades, even economically. While transistor count increases according to Moore's law, overall performance rises only very slowly. This is because our productivity in developing software increases only slightly, and software becomes more bloated and remains as error-prone as it ever was. Also, the computational complexity of computer simulation of the real world increases even more rapidly when the scale gets more precise.
At the end he warns that the biggest problem of any theory (esp. ideology) is not that it is false, "but when it claims to be the sole and utterly complete path to understanding life and reality." The impression of objective necessity paralyzes the ability of humans to walk out of or to fight the paradigm and causes the self-fulfilling destiny which spoils people.
Post-symbolic communication (2006)
Some of Lanier's speculation involves what he calls "post-symbolic communication." In his April 2006 Discover magazine column, he writes about cephalopods (i.e., the various species of octopus, squid, and related molluscs), many of which are able to morph their bodies, including changing the pigmentation and texture of their skin, as well as forming complex shape imitations with their limbs. Lanier sees this behavior, especially as exchanged between two octopodes, as a direct behavioral expression of thought.
"Digital Maoism" (2006)
In his online essay "Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism", in Edge magazine in May 2006, Lanier criticized the sometimes-claimed omniscience of collective wisdom (including examples such as the Wikipedia article about himself), describing it as "digital Maoism". He writes "If we start to believe that the Internet itself is an entity that has something to say, we're devaluing those people [creating the content] and making ourselves into idiots."
His criticism aims at several targets which are at different levels of abstraction:
- any attempt to create one final authoritative bottleneck which channels the knowledge onto society is wrong, regardless whether it is a Wikipedia or any algorithmically created system producing meta information,
- sterile style of wiki writing is undesirable because:
- it removes the touch with the real author of original information, it filters the subtlety of his opinions, essential information (for example, the graphical context of original sources) is lost,
- it creates the false sense of authority behind the information,
- collective authorship tends to produce or align to mainstream or organizational beliefs,
- he worries that collectively created works may be manipulated behind the scene by anonymous groups of editors who bear no visible responsibility,
- and that this kind of activity might create future totalitarian systems as these are basically grounded on misbehaved collectives which oppress individuals.
This critique is further explored in an interview with him on The Philosopher's Zone radio program where he is critical of the denatured effect which "removes the scent of people".
In December 2006 Lanier followed up his critique of the collective wisdom with an article in Edge titled "Beware the Online Collective". Lanier writes:
- I wonder if some aspect of human nature evolved in the context of competing packs. We might be genetically wired to be vulnerable to the lure of the mob.
- What's to stop an online mass of anonymous but connected people from suddenly turning into a mean mob, just like masses of people have time and time again in the history of every human culture? It's amazing that details in the design of online software can bring out such varied potentials in human behavior. It's time to think about that power on a moral basis.
Lanier argues that the search for deeper information in any area sooner or later requires that you find information that has been produced by a single person, or a few devoted individuals:"You have to have a chance to sense personality in order for language to have its full meaning." That is, he sees limitations in the utility of an encyclopedia produced by only partially interested third parties as a form of communication.
You Are Not a Gadget (2010)
In his book You Are Not a Gadget (2010), Lanier criticizes the hive mind of Web 2.0 (wisdom of the crowd) and describes the open source and open content expropriation of intellectual production as a form of "Digital Maoism". Lanier argues that Web 2.0 developments have retarded progress and innovation and glorified the collective at the expense of the individual. He criticizes Wikipedia and Linux as examples of this problem; Wikipedia for its "mob rule" by anonymous editors, the weakness of its non-scientific content, and its bullying of experts. Lanier also argues that there are limitations to certain aspects of the open source and content movement in that they lack the ability to create anything truly new and innovative. For example, Lanier makes the observation that the open source movement didn't create the iPhone. In another example, Lanier claims that Web 2.0 makes search engines lazy, destroys the potential of innovative websites like Thinkquest, and hampers the communication of ideas like mathematics to a wider audience. Lanier further argues that the open source approach has destroyed opportunities for the middle class to finance content creation, and results in the concentration of wealth in a few individuals—"the lords of the clouds"—people who, more by virtue of luck rather than true innovation, manage to insert themselves as content concentrators at strategic times and locations in the cloud.
As a musician, Lanier has been active in the world of new classical music since the late 1970s. He is a pianist and a specialist in many unusual musical instruments, especially the wind and string instruments of Asia. He maintains one of the largest and most varied collections of actively played rare instruments in the world. Lanier has performed with artists as diverse asPhilip Glass, Ornette Coleman, George Clinton, Vernon Reid, Terry Riley, Duncan Sheik, Pauline Oliveros, and Stanley Jordan. Recording projects include his acoustic techno duet withSean Lennon and an album of duets with flautist Robert Dick.
He also writes chamber and orchestral music. Current commissions include an opera that will premiere in Busan, South Korea, and a symphony, Symphony for Amelia, to be premiered by the Bach Festival Society Orchestra and Choir in Winter Park, Florida, in October 2010. Recent commissions include “Earthquake!” a ballet that premiered at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco in April 2006; “Little Shimmers” for the TroMetrik ensemble, which premiered at ODC in San Francisco in April 2006; “Daredevil” for the ArrayMusic chamber ensemble, which premiered in Toronto in 2006; A concert-length sequence of works for orchestra and virtual worlds (including "Canons for Wroclaw," "Khaenoncerto," "The Egg," and others) celebrating the 1000th birthday of the city of Wroclaw, Poland, premiered in 2000; A triple concerto, "The Navigator Tree," commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts and the American Composers Forum, premiered in 2000; and "Mirror/Storm," a symphony commissioned by the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, which premiered in 1998. Continental Harmony was a PBS special that documented the development and premiere of “The Navigator Tree” won a CINE Golden Eagle Award.
In 1994, he released the classical music album Instruments of Change on POINT Music/Philips/PolyGram Records. The album has been described as a Western exploration of Asian musical traditions by Stephen Hill on "The Crane Flies West 2" (episode 357) of Hearts of Space. Lanier is currently working on a book Technology and the Future of the Human Soul, and a music album Proof of Consciousness, in collaboration with Mark Deutsch.
Lanier's work with Asian instruments can be heard extensively on the soundtrack of Three Seasons (1999), which was the first film ever to win both the Audience and Grand Jury awards at the Sundance Film Festival. He and Mario Grigorov are currently scoring a new film called The Third Wave, which premiered at Sundance in 2007. He is working with Terry Riley on a collaborative opera to be titled Bastard, the First.
Lanier has also pioneered the use of Virtual Reality in musical stage performance with his band Chromatophoria, which has toured around the world as a headline act in venues such as the Montreux Jazz Festival. He plays virtual instruments and uses real instruments to guide events in virtual worlds. In October 2010, Lanier collaborated with Rollins College and John V. Sinclair's Bach Festival Choir and Orchestra for his Worldwide Premiere of “Symphony for Amelia.”
Lanier contributed the afterword to Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture (The MIT Press, 2008) edited by Paul D. Miller a.k.a. DJ Spooky.
Lanier has served on numerous advisory boards, including the Board of Councilors of the University of Southern California, Medical Media Systems (a medical visualization spin-off company associated with Dartmouth College), Microdisplay Corporation, and NY3D (developers of auto stereo displays).
In mid-1997, he was a founding member of the National Tele-Immersion Initiative, an effort devoted to utilizing computer technology to give people who are separated by great distances the illusion that they are physically together. Lanier is a member of the Global Business Network, part of the Monitor Group.
In the media
He has appeared in several documentaries, including the 1992 Danish television documentary Computerbilleder - udfordring til virkeligheden, the 1995 documentary Synthetic Pleasures, and the 2004 television documentary Rage Against the Machines. Lanier was credited as one of the miscellaneous crew for the 2002 film Minority Report. Lanier stated that his role was to help make up the gadgets and scenarios.
- Carnegie Mellon University's Watson award in 2001
- Finalist for the first Edge of Computation Award in 2005.
- Honorary doctorate from New Jersey Institute of Technology in 2006
- IEEE Virtual Reality Career Award in 2009.
- Named one of TIME's 100 most influential people in 2010 (nominated by Microsoft VP Dan Reed).
Western classical music
- "One Half of a Manifesto", Edge, 11.11.00
- "Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism", Edge, 5.30.06
- "Beware the Online Collective", Edge, 12.25.06
- Information Is an Alienated Experience, Basic Books, 2006. ISBN 0-465-03282-6
- You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto, New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2010, ISBN 978-1846143410
- 'Finding Humanity in the Interface: Capacity Atrophy or Augmentation?' A debate between Jaron Lanier and Will Wright from the Accelerating Change 2004 conference.
- Video of Jaron Lanier speaking at a Film Festival
- Video of Jaron Lanier's "McLuhan Ramp" Lecture
- Video of Jaron Lanier with Neal Stephenson, Neil Gershenfeld, Raymond Laflamme, and Tara Hunt, on The Agenda with Steve Paikin at the Quantum to Cosmos festival.
- Video of panel discussion with Jaron Lanier, Neal Stephenson and Lee Smolin, "Seeing Science Through Fiction" at the Quantum to Cosmos festival
- Podcast of Science in the Pub panel discussion with Jaron Lanier, Hod Lipson, Wilson da Silva and Eliezer Yudkowsky: "So We're All Gonna be Robots, Now?"
- Video of Jaron Lanier giving a talk titled: 'Staying Human in a Tech-Driven World' at Zócalo public square, on January 28, 2010
- Audio of Jaron Lanier speaking at the London School of Economics
- The Sound of One Hand. July 28–30, 1992. SIGGRAPH '92 Electronic Theater. Live improvisational performance using several virtual musical instruments (including the "CyberSax") within a virtual reality environment. Instruments were played with a dataglove using a gestural interface.
- Interview with Jaron Lanier on Music
- Coding from Scratch (Dead link, Archive.org copy): A Conversation with Jaron Lanier, Part 1
- The Future of Virtual Reality (Dead link, Archive.org copy): A Conversation with Jaron Lanier, Part 2
- Brown, David Jay; Novick, Rebecca McClen (1995). Voices from the edge: Conversations with Jerry Garcia, Ram Dass, Annie Sprinkle, Matthew Fox, Jaron Lanier, & others. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press. ISBN 0-89594-732-3.
- Interview by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Counterpoint program; Lanier strongly criticises both Wikipedia and singularitarianism
- A Conversation with Jaron Lanier
- "You Are Not a Gadget" author Jaron Lanier on Media Matters with Bob McChesney, Sunday, March 28, 2010, hosted by Robert W. McChesney.
- ^ BRUSTEIN, JOSHUA (May 23, 2011). "One on One: Jaron Lanier". New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2011. "Jaron Lanier, a partner architect at Microsoft Research, has had a long and varied career in technology."
- ^ Lewis, Peter H. (1994-09-25). "Sound Bytes; He Added 'Virtual' to 'Reality'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2011-03-04. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
- ^ Burkeman, Oliver (2001-12-29). "The virtual visionary". guardian.co.uk.
- ^ a b "The virtual curmudgeon". The Economist Newspaper Limited. 2010-09-02.
- ^ Savage, Emily (2010-10-20). "Renaissance man: Berkeley resident is a musician, a Web guru and the father of virtual reality". j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California. Archived from the original on 2011-03-06.
- ^ Kahn, Jennifer (11 July 2011). "The Visionary". New Yorker. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- ^ Jones, Steve (2003). Encyclopedia of New Media. SAGE. pp. 280–282.ISBN 0761923829. See also: Hamilton, Joan O'C. (1993-02-22). Business Week as quoted in "Jaron Lanier." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004.
- ^ Appleyard, Bryan (2010-01-17). "Jaron Lanier: The father of virtual reality". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2011-03-06.
- ^ McKenna, Barbara (2000-01-10). "Talking technology: A Q&A with the inventor of virtual reality". UC Santa Cruz, Currents. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
- ^ Lanier, Jaron (April 2006). "Why not morph? What cephalopods can teach us about language". Discover.
- ^ a b c Lanier, Jaron (2006-05-30). "Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism". Edge.
- ^ Lanier, Jaron (2006-07-08). "Is a free market in ideas a good idea?". Philosopher's Zone, ABC National Radio.
- ^ Lanier, Jaron (2006-12-25). "Beware the Online Collective". Edge.
- ^ Kakutani, Michiko (January 14, 2010). "A Rebel in Cyberspace, Fighting Collectivism".New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- ^ Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 and Lanier’s Symphony for Amelia at bachfestivalflorida.org
- ^ Continental Harmony at PBS.org
- ^ See "Sonos performances" Sonos.org
- ^ Lanier, Jaron (1994). Instruments of Change. POINT Music/Philips/PolyGram Records. ASIN B00000418Q.
- ^ "The Crane Flies West 2". Hearts of Space. 13 May 1994. No. 357.
- ^ a b c "Brief Biography of Jaron Lanier". Homepage of Jaron Lanier. Retrieved 2006-07-08.
- ^ "Jaron Lanier's Music Reel". Homepage of Jaron Lanier. Retrieved 2006-07-18.
- ^ Bach Festival Choir and Orchestra at http://www.bachfestivalflorida.org/
- ^ Jaron Lanier @ Keynote Speakers Inc.
- ^ "National Tele-Immersion Initiative". Advanced Network & Services, Inc.. Retrieved 2006-07-05.
- ^ "Individual GBN Members". Global Business Network. Archived from the original on 2006-03-28. Retrieved 2006-07-05.
- ^ a b c d "Jaron Lanier". IMDb. Retrieved 2006-07-05.
- ^ a b "Jaron Lanier". The 2010 TIME 100. 2010-04-29.
- ^ Jaron Lanier - Instruments of Change (ArkivMusic.com)
- ^ Solomon, Robert. "The Shadow of Super Mario Clouds". Game Design as Cultural Practice. Georgia Tech. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- Cave, Damien (2000-10-04). "Artificial stupidity". salon.com.
- Chesher, Chris (Fall 1994). Colonizing Virtual Reality. 1. Cultronix.
- Garreau, Joel (2005). Radical Evolution: The promise and peril of enhancing our minds, our bodies -- and what it means to be human. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50965-0.[Lanier and his theories are prominently featured in the section Prevail]